Leeds University has a very useful website where most ideas about referencing are explained.

Long list of way to cite work can also be found at The University of East London Website:

Keeping a record of your references

  • Keep a detailed record of the sources of information you use in your research as you consult them – it may be impossible to find them again later if you haven’t noted all the bibliographic details the first time
  • If you photocopy a journal article, make sure it shows the journal title, volume and issue numbers, and page numbers. If it doesn’t, write them on
  • Keep print-outs of any web pages you have consulted
  • If you’ve lost the details of one of your references, you won’t be able to use it in your assignment – using it without an acknowledgement would be plagiarism
  • One traditional method of storing your references is to write the details of each useful source you’ve consulted on a small card, which you can file in alphabetical order
  • Many people keep a list of the sources they’ve consulted in some electronic format such as a Word document, an Excel spreadsheet or a database such as Access

How to set out quotations and citations in your text


When you quote from another source, you must ensure your writing reads fluently and that the quotation fits in its new context. Quotations should not simply be stuck in to prove you have read them. When you quote or paraphrase:

  • it must be relevant to your argument
  • it must join neatly with what comes before and after
  • it must make logical and grammatical sense
  • it should be no longer than is necessary

In-text citations give brief details of the source of an idea or piece of information within the text of an assignment. In the Harvard style, citations should contain only the following information, in this order:

  1. the surname of the author
  2. the date of publication of the text
  3. the page number(s) of the text (usually for direct quotations only).

A web page reference follows the pattern of:

Author(s). (Year of publication). Title of page in italic text [online]. [Date accessed]. Publisher of webpage if available. Available from World Wide Web: URL

This is an example of a web page reference:

STALEY, P. 2000. The ultimate referencing guide [online]. [Accessed 14 January 2002]. Brown’s Publishing House. Available from World Wide Web: http://web.address.htm


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